La Cámara Nacional Electoral hizo efectivo el derecho a votar de los detenidos sin condena

La Cámara dispuso que se debía garantizar el derecho de los procesados no condenados a elegir el futuro Gobernador y Vice de la Provincia, aún en ausencia de regulación local. La posibilidad de elegir otras autoridades provinciales y municipales deberá quedar relegada hasta el momento en que se dicte dicha regulación.

En respuesta al recurso de apelación interpuesto por el Centro Latinoamericano de Derechos Humanos (CLADH) ante la Cámara Nacional Electoral -contra la resolución del Juez Federal de Primera instancia que se había declarado incompetente para resolver sobre el amparo interpuesto- la Cámara consideró procedente la petición y encomendó a la Secretaría de Actuación Electoral la adopción de las medidas necesarias para garantizar la emisión del voto de los ciudadanos detenidos en prisión preventiva, el próximo 23 de octubre.

El fallo hizo mención en sus considerandos a la sentencia de la Junta Electoral de la Provincia de Mendoza, que en junio de 2009 – y también a instancias del amparo colectivo presentado por el CLADH- expresó que si bien la vía intentada no era procedente –ya que consideró que la justicia federal debía entender dada la simultaneidad de elecciones nacionales y provinciales- y que había escaso tiempo para el efectivo cumplimiento del derecho, reconoció el derecho de los detenidos no condenados en prisión preventiva a ejercer su derecho político al voto. Asimismo, en dicha oportunidad la Junta Electoral instó al Poder Legislativo y al Poder Ejecutivo a “adoptar las  medidas necesarias para hacer efectivo el derecho a votar de los detenidos no condenados en el próximo proceso electoral.” Transcurridos más de dos años desde aquel pronunciamiento ni el Legislativo ni el Ejecutivo han hecho nada al respecto.

La Cámara Nacional también se hizo eco del precedente “Mignone” de la Corte Suprema de la Nación, que tuvo como consecuencia la modificación de Código Electoral Nacional, y el reconocimiento del derecho al voto a los ciudadanos con prisión preventiva. Sin embargo, este precedente sólo contempla la posibilidad de que se voten autoridades nacionales, no así provinciales o locales, las cuales quedan sujetas a la reglamentación correspondiente.

Sin perjuicio de ello, la Cámara Nacional Electoral dispuso que “aún en ausencia de regulación local (…) corresponde colaborar con la adopción de las medidas necesarias dirigidas a hacer efectivo este derecho”, resolviendo que los ciudadanos detenidos en prisión preventiva con último domicilio en la Provincia de Mendoza podrán votar para la categoría de gobernador en las próximas elecciones, aunque no para las demás autoridades provinciales (legisladores) o municipales, “por imposibilidad material de organizar una elección de esa naturaleza por subdivisiones electorales, en ausencia de la pertinente reglamentación”.

El presidente del CLADH, el abogado Ignacio de Casas, sostuvo: “Es de público conocimiento que la Provincia se encuentra bajo el escrutinio de los mecanismos de aplicación del Pacto de San José: la Comisión y la Corte Interamericanas de Derechos Humanos. Y varios de los establecimientos carcelarios de Mendoza son objetos de medidas provisionales ordenadas por esta última. Sin embargo, los avances son poco claros, y las autoridades provinciales no progresan en el cumplimiento de sus obligaciones de mejora de las condiciones de detención de procesados y condenados. Si algo tenemos claro de nuestra defectuosa democracia es que los políticos se mueven con fines electoralistas, haciendo obras y mejoras de elección en elección. Bueno, pues, démosle voto a los sin voz, para que al menos así los políticos se preocupen un poco más de su dignidad de personas”.

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